Professor Carmel studies the globalization of technology work:
global teams, global sourcing, and the emergence of software industries around
In 2011 he completed his 3rd book. This one is about the
special issues that time zone separation imposes on global coordination of
work. “I’m Working While They’re
Sleeping: Time Zone Separation Challenges and Solutions” is co-authored
with his colleague Alberto Espinosa. Carmel’s 1999 book "Global
Software Teams" was the first on this topic and is considered a landmark
in the field, helping many organizations take their first steps into
distributed tech work. His second book "Offshoring Information
Technology" came out in 2005 and became popular as outsourcing began to be
taught in business schools around the world.
He has written over 100 articles, reports, and manuscripts.
He consults and speaks to industry and professional groups. Here is a video of
a 2013 talk at IESE on global coordination across time zones. He also
writes a Blog.
He is a tenured full Professor at the Information Technology
department, Kogod School of Business at American University. In the 1990s he
co-founded and led the program in Management of Global Information
Technology. In 2005-2008 he was department Chair. In 2009 he was awarded
the International Business Professorship in 2012 he was named Kogod
UPS Scholar. He has been a Visiting Professor at Haifa University
(Israel) and University College Dublin (Ireland). In 2008-2009 he was the
Orkand Endowed Chaired Professor at the University of Maryland University
College. He is also a Faculty Associate at the Center for Information
Technology and the Global Economy (CITGE).
He received his Ph.D., in Management
Information Systems from the University of Arizona; his MBA from the University
of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), and his B.A. from the University of
California at Berkeley.
I’m Working While They’re Sleeping:
Time Zone Separation Challenges and Solutions
with J. Alberto Espinosa © 2011
Distance is dead. Time zones are not.
When millions of knowledge workers are coordinating daily with partners around the globe, the key coordination challenge is time zone separation. Yet many overlook the ways time zones can influence their productivity. The authors distill more than a decade of research to address the time zone challenges in approachable and practical prose with cases, stories, and actionable items. Discover why timeshifting is the key solution for time zone challenged teams. Recognize why scattertime may be the work mode of the future. Learn why both Follow-the-Sun and Round-the-Clock can leverage time zones but in very different ways. Understand how to think strategically–not just tactically—about time zones. He spoke about this topic at TEDx (watch) and was interviewed about this on Globalist Radio (listen).
Offshoring Information Technology:
Sourcing and Outsourcing to a Global Workforce
co-authored with Paul Tjia © 2005 (pub: Cambridge University Press)
decision to source software development to an overseas firm
(offshoring) is looked at frequently in simple economic terms - it's
cheaper, and skilled labor is easier to find. In practice, however,
offshoring is fraught with difficulties. As well as the considerable
challenge of controlling projects at a distance, there are differences
in culture, language, business methods, politics, and many other issues
to contend with. This book explains how to put offshoring into
practice, avoid the pitfalls, and develop effective working
relationships. See book review in Computerworld [go to middle of page]
Global Software Teams:
Collaborating Across Borders and Time Zones
© 1999 (pub: Prentice Hall)
A pioneering book on virtual teaming and global software development that
has been cited hundreds of times in studies, used in dozens of classes
around the world, used as a guidebook by managers in dozens of
technology companies, and used as a quick primer by technocrats
learning about how ICTs can make a difference to their emerging
New Global Sourcing Models and Approaches
- Managing the
Human Cloud, in MIT Sloan Management Review, written by Kaganer,
Carmel, Hirschheim and Olsen. Winter 2013 Issue
- Outsourcing: Buying IT Services from Remote Domestic Suppliers. Written by
Lacity, Carmel, and Rottman, in IEEE Computer, 2011. This was expanded
in 2012 and became an IEEE Ready Note, available on Amazon, called Rural
Outsourcing: Buying IT Services from Remote Domestic Suppliers.
Emergence of software industries around the world
- The Maturing
Chinese Offshore IT Services Industry: it takes 10 years to sharpen a sword. Written by
Carmel, Gao, and Zhang, MIS Quarterly Executive, 2008. Reprinted as
book chapter in China 's Emerging ITO and BPO Capabilities edited by
Leslie Willcocks and Mary Lacity, Sage Publications, 2010.
Why nearshore means
that distance matters . By Carmel and Abbott. Communications of the ACM,
(CACM), October, 2007.
- Narratives that
Software Nations Tell Themselves. Communications of the Association of
Information Systems. By Carmel and Eisenberg 2006.
articles on the "New
Software Exporting Nations" in a special issue of The Electronic
Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, Vol, 13, May 2003. Full
- Taxonomy of New
Software Exporting Nations
- The New Software
Exporting Nations: Impacts on National Well Being Resulting from their Software
- The New Software
Exporting Nations: Success Factors
's Silicon Wadi: the forces behind cluster formation. Written by Catherine De
Fontenay and Carmel . Appeared in the book by Bresnahan, T. Gambardella, A. and
Saxenian, A. (editors) Building High Tech Clusters , Cambridge University
Press, 2004. The Full chapter appeared earlier
as Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research (SIEPR) article number 00-40.
Offshore Sourcing of IT Work
Is the World
Really Flat? A Look at Offshoring in an Online Programming Marketplace , Written by
Gefen and Carmel , Management Information Systems Quarterly (MISQ),
- Small Firms and
Offshore Software Outsourcing: High Transaction Costs and their
Mitigation. Written by Carmel and Brian Nicholson . Journal of Global
Information Management 13(3), 2005.
- The Maturation
of Offshore Sourcing of IT Work, Written by Carmel and Ritu Agarwal,
Management Information Systems Quarterly - Executive , June 2002, Volume 1,
Issue 2. Voted one of 10 best MISQE articles. An epilogue and notes on stage
models appears here.
Global Teams and the Challenge of Time Zone Separation
Does Time Zone
Proximity Matter for Brazil? A Study of the Brazilian I.T. Industry. July 2010
written with Rafael Prikladnicki. Achieved Top
10 status in several SSRN categories in 2010
Follow The Sun:
Workflow In Global Software Development: Conceptual Foundations, Written by
Carmel, Espinosa, Dubinsky, Journal of Management Information Systems ,
Do Gradations of
Time Zone Separation Make a Difference in Performance? A First Laboratory Study
Written by Alberto Espinosa, Ning Nan, and Erran Carmel . International
Conference on Global Software Engineering, Munich , Germany , August, 2007.
Information Systems from the Other Side of the World: How Infosys manages time
Management Information Systems Quarterly - Executive , March, 2006.
The Impact of
Time Separation on Coordination in Global Software Teams: a Conceptual Foundation
Written by Alberto Espinosa and Carmel Journal of Software Process
Improvement and Practice , 8(4), 2004.
Approaches for Alleviating Distance in Global Software Development. Written by
Carmel and Ritu Agarwal, IEEE Software Journal , March/April 2001.
Selected by journal's editorial & advisory boards as one of
25th-Anniversary Top Picks in its history, for full-length, peer-reviewed
articles. List appears in Jan/Feb 2009 issue.
Telematics at an Italian Insurer: New Auto Insurance Products and a New
Industry Ecosystem, written by Vaia, Carmel, DeLone, Trautsch, and Menichetti.
MIS Quarterly Executive, 11: 3 (2012).
the Business Potential of Virtual Worlds, written by Nevo S., Nevo, D. Carmel,
E. in Sloan Management Review, Spring 2011.
Cases for Teaching
- "Lifebushido: The Challenge of the Microsourcing Labor Markets" Full Case
- This is a short teaching case about a small American firm that is an intermediary in the emerging microsourcing / microwork / human-cloud global marketplace for services, which in this case is virtual assistants market. April 2011.
- "Healthware S.p.A. From An Underdeveloped Region Of Italy - Can It Be A Global Firm?" Full Case
- This is a short teaching case about an Italian e-health firm dealing
with the dilemma of international growth from an unconventional
location. May 2009.
- "PanGenesis: A Creative Costa Rican Approach to the Persistent IT Labor Crunch." . Full Case
- This case is about a Costa Rican IT Services firm exploring new
workforce models to overcome the tight IT labor markets. August, 2007.
- "Finding a niche in the global software marketplace: The case of the Peruvian firm LOLIMSA, Technologias para Salud." Full Case
- This is a short teaching case about a Peruvian software product firm
that is exporting niche software products. December 2005.
- "Sheen Software Systems Considers China for Offshore I.T. Outsourcing." Full Case - This is a short teaching case about a small American firm considering offshore work. November, 2003.
Carmel serves on the editorial boards of the journals: MIS Quarterly-Executive,
Journal of Information Technology for Development, Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, Journal of Global Information Technology Management, Information Technology & People, and others
Carmel teaches the following courses:
& Technology (MBA core course)
Edge of IT (undergraduate core course)
& Foresight (MBA class). This is one of the few futures courses in any
& Offshoring. Carmel
was one of the first in the world to teach a university class on offshoring/outsourcing
(in Ireland in 2005 and later at American University that same year).
Policy, and Information Technology. This was Carmel’s signature course for
many years. In the early years of the internet it was a popular public
repository of ~100 country studies titled "The
Landscape of Information Technology" See a short article describing this
is in Journal of IT Education. Unfortunately, AU took down the public
repository in 2012 due to its old architecture. Here is a
snapshot of the repository on Wayback.
Electronic Commerce. When
the internet enabled commerce, Carmel was one of the first to teach a class on
the topic in early 1996.
Collaborative Technology / Virtual Teams.
of Information Goods
Selected speaking engagements:
University, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Invited seminar on The impact of
collaboration across time zones on the New World of Work, January 2013.
Business School, Barcelona. Invited lecture on the 10 Things Every
Manager Needs to Know About Working Across Time Zones, January 2013.
- 3rd sourcing
workshop, Ca' Foscari University Venice, Italia. Keynote on impact sourcing
- National Science Foundation workshop on global
engineering Arlington, Virginia, USA Invited talk on: Follow the sun and other
fables of global work, May, 2012
- Inauguration in global software engineering at Delft University of Technology, Netherlands. Keynote: Ten Things Software Engineers Need To Know About Time Zones. December, 2011
- PMI Brazil, Porto Alegre, Brazil Keynote: The 10 Things Every Project Manager Needs To Know About Time Zones. September, 2011
- Infosys Connect 2011, Las Vegas, Panelist: Challenges in Distributed Software Development, August, 2011
- TEDx, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. The Internet and time zones. March, 2011
- Governance delle ralazioni di outsourcing, Universita degli Studi di Roma, Invited keynote on: Microsourcing: The next sourcing frontier. March, 2011.
- Warwick Business School, University of Warwick (UK) on The Impact Of Time Zone Differences in the Global IT Industry December 2010
- Center for Science & Tech Policy: George Mason University. (USA) on The Landscape of Offshoring and the Role of Time Zone Differences in the Global IT Industry, October 2010
- International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE on Implementing Agile Software Development across Time Zones, August 2010
- Pontifícia Universidade do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS ) / Technopuc ( Porto Alegre Brazil) on Brazil's position in coordination across time zones, May 2010
- INFORTE workshop (Jyvaskyla, Finland) on Global software development
and offshoring, speaker on two topics: Coordination across time zones
and on The landscape of nations and offshoring; August, 2009.
- SAP Research Labs-Israel Tel Aviv, Workshop
leader on Managing, coordinating, and communicating in a distributed
environment, Feb, 2009
- Universita Degli Studi Di Salerno, Managing
Outsourcing Relationships and New Governance Models. Salerno, Italy;
Invited speaker on Micro-sourcing, Multi-sourcing and Governance. Oct.
- 6th Caribbean Ministerial Strategic Seminar, Barbados,
Invited speaker on Offshoring - implications for the Caribbean,
- Israel Business @60.
Co-chair of this two-day conference at American University . Also
chaired the panel on Technology, Innovation, and Start-Ups. March 2008.
- International Conference on Global Software Engineering Munich , Germany , keynote speaker on Reflections on a Decade of Studying Global Software Engineering ;August 2007.
- International Offshoring & Nearshoring Symposium . Vienna , Austria , invited speaker on Distance Still Matters: Nearshoring & Time Differences, June 2007.
- Costa Rica Technology Insight 2007, San Jose , Costa Rica , invited speaker on Nearshoring 2.0, March, 2007.
- NYU-IBM Workshop on Global Sourcing , New York , invited speaker on The Stubborn Problem of Coordination Across Time Zones, January, 2007.
- The Norwegian Network on ICT and Development :
Annual workshop at Norwegian University of Science and Technology
(NTNU), Trondheim , Norway , invited keynote on Offshoring to
Developing Nations: Current landscape & policy questions, Nov 2006.
- Jiaotong University, Beijing, invited seminar on Configurations of Global Software Development. May 2006.
- University of Wisconsin, Madison, invited talk on Israeli High-tech vs. Indian high-tech. Apr 2006.
Services Conference (CMP Inc.), sourcing strategies, New York City,
panelist on "How Technology Is Flattening Global Business" Feb 2006.
Conference on Information Systems (ICIS). Invited keynote on Narratives
that Software Nations Tell Themselves Cross Cultural Research in
Information Systems workshop, Las Vegas, Dec 2005.
International Peruvian Software Industry Congress, Invited keynote on
Offshoring, Software Exports and the Place of Peru November, 2005.
- Infosys, Bangalore, India. Seminar as Visiting Research Fellow on the topic "Time Separation at Infosys," July 2005.
- IBM Research Lab New Delhi , India. Invited seminar on Distributed Software Teams: Distance Matters, July 2005.
- GPI Offshore Seminar Vught , Netherlands. Invited speaker on Distance matters in offshoring, June 2005.
of Limerick , ISERC: Irish Software Engineering Research
Consortium Limerick , Ireland . Invited colloquium keynote on
Distance Matters, June 2005.
- London Business School , England . Invited speaker at the Emerging
Markets Seminar Series, on the topic National Software Myths, May,
- I DO 2004
(International Developers Opportunities), conference on Brazilian
software industry strategies, invited keynote speaker on the topic of
Offshoring, Software Exports and the Place of Brazil; Sao Paulo,
Brazil, December 2004.
- Russian Outsourcing Software Summit , invited
speaker on The Views On Offshore Outsourcing From Inside Washington
D.C.: The Politicians, The Press, The Public, St. Petersburg, Russia,
- National Software Summit : IT Workforce Workshop , invited panelist on Global Sourcing, Virginia , March, 2004.
- Society for Information Management , Offshore Outsourcing: Strategic Issues and Implications, Moderator and Speaker, Virginia, January, 2004.
Intellectual Property Project, (which Carmel co-founded) Chair of the
workshop on "Patenting Business Methods: is the US patent system bad
for Business?" at American University, April 2003.
- Romanian International Outsourcing Conference , Keynote speaker, The Global Picture of Software and Services Outsourcing Bucharest, Romania, April, 2003.
- Russian Software Outsourcing Summit , St. Petersburg , Russia , June 2002.
- The Social Implications of Computers in Developing Nations Conference, IFIP working group 9.4; Bangalore, India , May 2002.
- Symposium on Trends in Offshore Outsourcing. University of Manchester , England ; May 2001.
- University of Victoria , Canada . Lansdowne distinguished lecturer, April 2001.
- International Workshop on Global Software Outsourcing: The solution to the IT skills gap? Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin fur Sozialforschung, Berlin , March, 2001.
Information Technology Dept
and UPS Scholar.
Kogod School of Business
Washington DC, USA
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